Module 3: Part 1 – Kingdom Monera and Kingdom Protista

Kingdom Monera represents the least complex organisms in creation.  Although they are mind-bogglingly complex,they are still as “simple” as life gets.  Members of Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes, so their cell structure is basic, yet they play important roles in the ocean.  Bacteria are single-celled, microscopic organisms, lacking nuclei or other organelles.  Even through you may think they are simplistic organism, they can execute almost all the major chemical processes that more complex organisms carry out.

Heterotrophic bacteria obtain their food by breaking down either the wast products of other organisms or dead organic material.  They are called decomposers.  These bacteria are the recyclers of the earth, obtaining the essential nutrients from wastes or dead organisms and processing them back into useable forms for the rest of creation.

Autotrophic bacteria produce their own organic compounds.  They are further divided into two groups:  Photosynthetic and Chemosynthesis.  Bacteria that can photosynthesize contain chlorophyll and utilize light energy to manufacture organic compounds.  Bacteria that utilize chemosynthesis use energy stored in chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or methane to produce their own organic compounds.

Cyanobacteria are aquatic an photosynthetic,  that is, they live in the water, and can manufacture their own food. Because they are bacteria, they are quite small and usually unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large enough to see. Because they are photosynthetic and aquatic, cyanobacteria are often called “blue-green algae”. This name is convenient for talking about organisms in the water that make their own food, but does not reflect any relationship between the cyanobacteria and other organisms called algae. Cyanobacteria are relatives of the bacteria, not eukaryotes, and it is only the chloroplast in eukaryotic algae to which the cyanobacteria are related.

Cyanobacteria actually remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and use it in their metabolic processes. They inhabit nearly all illuminated environments on Earth and play the key roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. In general, cyanobacteria are able to utilize a variety of inorganic and organic sources of combined nitrogen, like nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, urea or some amino acids.

In class we learned how to set up a salt water aquarium.


Below is the toad fish that was caught during our last Wet Lab at Big Pass, South Lido Beach.


September 20, 2012 PowerPoint Honors Marine Biology class 5





  1. Read and Study Module 3 (p.55-65)
  2. Complete OYO:   3.1 to 3.6
  3. Study Guide Define:  a – f   and  Questions  2 – 10.
  4. Finish up Lab book drawings
  5. Quiz:  Know the basic cell structure for   Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. (Figure 2.2 and 2.3)
  6. Class Challenge :  Dress up to show your support for your favorite sports team.

Have a great week. -Mrs. S

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1 Response to Module 3: Part 1 – Kingdom Monera and Kingdom Protista

  1. SAMUEL TOSIN says:

    tanks 4 dis interesting teaching

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